The 20th century was one filled with significant change within the European continent, including the Russian Revolution of 1917, which consisted of two pivotal rebellions in March and November of that year. While the latter November Revolution led to the rise of a group of communists known as the Bolsheviks to power, it was the initial March Revolution that ended centuries of imperial rule in Russia. Though several distinct causes precipitated the spring revolution, it was the social, political, and economic structure of the country and the effects of World War I that terminated the Romanov dynasty, instituted a democratic republic, and launched a civil war.
Concepts of Proper Societal / Governmental Leadership
It is said that concepts of proper societal and governmental leadership were born in ancient societies, that principles from pagan religions can be seen in modern Christianity, and that even today's approach to morality and ethics is owed, for example, to ancient Greek philosophers and others from that long-ago time.
Controlled by Argentina and Brazil to the north and northwest, and Spanish colonies along the Rio de la Plata, Uruguay declared its independence in 1810 (though it didn't truly achieve it until 1828). Unfortunately, as soon as the country gained its freedom, it lapsed into a civil war between early liberals and conservatives that lasted until the early 1850s...
Consumerism, the European Union, and Euro-Terrorism
While consumerism began in several countries across the global as early as the seventeenth century, it boomed in the United States in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. It was this American model that was explicitly exported to the rest of the world in the 1900s, particularly Europe, as evidenced in postwar reconstruction programs such as the Marshall Plan.
How and why the United States Became Involved in World War I and the Aftermath
On June 29, 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist lobbying for a pan-Slavic nation, murdered the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, triggering a series of events that led to the Great War. By the end of the following month, nearly a century of mutual defense alliance treaties had led the majority of Europe to wage war against each other.
Women and Reform Movements in the United States
Women became increasingly involved in a wide variety of reform movements between 1865 and 1920. What were some of these movements and what did they accomplish? Women’s suffrage grew in popularity during the Progressive Era, beginning in the late nineteenth century. One of the earliest movements that was largely spearheaded by women was that of...
Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the Great Depression
When President Franklin Delano Roosevelt took office in 1933, he had to figure out a way to pull the nation out of the Great Depression that President Hoover had essentially refused to acknowledge.
The (Second) Red Scare
This second Red Scare came at the start of the Cold War with the Soviet Union, whose successful detonation of its first atomic bomb on August 29, 1949 placed the United States on edge in regard to communism. The U.S. no longer maintained a monopoly on nuclear weaponry.
How to Prevent Identity Theft
Identity theft is the fraudulent and wrongful acquisition and use of a person’s private identifying information. Some of the means used by individuals to conduct identity theft are “shoulder surfing,” “dumpster diving,” and unsolicited emails (U.S. Department of Justice, 2017). A 2017 Identity Fraud study found that $16 billion was stolen from 15.4 million U.S....
American Policy in the Middle East
American policy in the Middle East through the Cold War (1947-1991) was largely motivated by the United States’ desire to check Soviet expansion and influence throughout the world. In the Middle East, this “meant preventing the Soviets from filling the void left by the end of Britain and France colonialism” (Beaver, Beaver and Wilsey, n.d.)....